Vorgefundene Konfiguration des OVH EG 2011 Best OF

Erfahrungsbericht zum OVH EG 2011 Best OF unter Debian GNU/Linux

Vorgefundene Systemkonfiguration des OVH EG 2011 Best OF - Erfahrungsbericht zum OVH EG 2011 Best OF unter Debian GNU/Linux.

Contents

Fakeraid

Ein Fakeraid ist bereits eingerichtet und partitioniert. Es existieren zwei identische Festplatten, die zu einem Software-RAID Level 1 (Mirroring) zusammengeschlossen sind. Verwendet wird Linux Software Raid, bzw. die MD-Tools.

# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [multipath] [faulty]
md1 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
      10485696 blocks [2/2] [UU]
     
md2 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
      1942498240 blocks [2/2] [UU]
     
unused devices: <none>

Warum bei OVH sämtliche RAID-Level aktiviert sind ist unklar. Die Standardkonfiguration ist bei Strato sinnvoller: Personalities : [raid1] - höhere RAID-Level machen bei lediglich zwei Festplatte ja keinen Sinn.

Die "Sqeeze"-Kernel sind deutlich frischer als die von "Lenny":

# lsmod | grep md_mod
Opening /proc/modules: No such file or directory

Bei "Lenny" musste man noch das Kernelmodul "md" laden; das sah dann beispielsweise so aus:

# lsmod | grep md_mod
md_mod                 80292  3 raid1

Bei "Squeeze" ist die RAID-Funktionalität fest im Kernel integriert und das Modul wird nicht mehr benötigt.

Parameter der eingerichteten Arrays:

# mdadm --detail /dev/md1
/dev/md1:
        Version : 0.90
  Creation Time : Fri Oct  7 01:45:39 2011
     Raid Level : raid1
     Array Size : 10485696 (10.00 GiB 10.74 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 10485696 (10.00 GiB 10.74 GB)
   Raid Devices : 2
  Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 1
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Fri Oct  7 17:38:13 2011
          State : clean
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

           UUID : 0d7b85fe:bef92fce:a4d2adc2:26fd5302
         Events : 0.1

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8        1        0      active sync   /dev/sda1
       1       8       17        1      active sync   /dev/sdb1

# mdadm --detail /dev/md2
/dev/md2:
        Version : 0.90
  Creation Time : Fri Oct  7 01:45:39 2011
     Raid Level : raid1
     Array Size : 1942498240 (1852.51 GiB 1989.12 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 1942498240 (1852.51 GiB 1989.12 GB)
   Raid Devices : 2
  Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 2
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Fri Oct  7 17:05:01 2011
          State : clean
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

           UUID : dc096e40:632ed664:a4d2adc2:26fd5302
         Events : 0.3

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8        2        0      active sync   /dev/sda2
       1       8       18        1      active sync   /dev/sdb2

Konfiguration des Managements des Software-RAID mit mdadm:

# cat /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf
# mdadm.conf
#
# Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file.
#

# by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks.
# alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired.
DEVICE partitions

# auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions
CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes

# automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system
HOMEHOST <system>

# instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts
MAILADDR root

# definitions of existing MD arrays

# This file was auto-generated on Thu, 30 Dec 2010 17:36:21 +0100
# by mkconf 3.1.4-1+8efb9d1

Vgl. mdadm.conf(5), md(4), raidtab(5), raid0run(8), raidstop(8) und mkraid(8).

Festplatten

Schnelltest:

# smartctl -H /dev/sda
smartctl 5.40 2010-07-12 r3124 [x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-10 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

# smartctl -H /dev/sdb
smartctl 5.40 2010-07-12 r3124 [x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-10 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED


Ausführlicher Test mit den Smartmontools.

# smartctl -t long /dev/sda

# smartctl -t long /dev/sdb

Nun heißt es 255 Minuten - also rund vier Stunden - warten. Ergebnis:

Erste Platte:

# smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 5.40 2010-07-12 r3124 [x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-10 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     ST32000641AS
Serial Number:    9WM7BWEB
Firmware Version: CC13
User Capacity:    2.000.398.934.016 bytes
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   8
ATA Standard is:  ATA-8-ACS revision 4
Local Time is:    Fri Oct  7 20:53:12 2011 CEST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
                                        was completed without error.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 244) Self-test routine in progress...
                                        40% of test remaining.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:                 ( 609) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:                    (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                                        Suspend Offline collection upon new
                                        command.
                                        Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                                        power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                                        General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:        ( 255) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   2) minutes.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
 1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   100   100   006    Pre-fail  Always       -       3128509
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   100   100   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       10
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   036    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   100   253   030    Pre-fail  Always       -       34153
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       27
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       10
183 Runtime_Bad_Block       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       2
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   066   063   045    Old_age   Always       -       34 (Lifetime Min/Max 32/37)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       9
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       10
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   034   040   000    Old_age   Always       -       34 (0 19 0 0)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x001a   021   021   000    Old_age   Always       -       3128509
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       198878460641326
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       2943519135
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       3908938008

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Self-test routine in progress 40%        27         -
# 2  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         2         -
# 3  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         0         -
# 4  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         0         -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Zweite Platte:

smartctl -a /dev/sdb
smartctl 5.40 2010-07-12 r3124 [x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-10 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     ST32000641AS
Serial Number:    9WM6ZV64
Firmware Version: CC13
User Capacity:    2.000.398.934.016 bytes
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   8
ATA Standard is:  ATA-8-ACS revision 4
Local Time is:    Fri Oct  7 20:54:05 2011 CEST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
                                        was completed without error.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 244) Self-test routine in progress...
                                        40% of test remaining.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:                 ( 609) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:                    (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                                        Suspend Offline collection upon new
                                        command.
                                        Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                                        power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                                        General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:        ( 255) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   2) minutes.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
 1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   100   100   006    Pre-fail  Always       -       2907914
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   100   100   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       10
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   036    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   100   253   030    Pre-fail  Always       -       32867
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       27
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       10
183 Runtime_Bad_Block       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   065   050   045    Old_age   Always       -       35 (Lifetime Min/Max 33/38)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       9
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       10
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   035   050   000    Old_age   Always       -       35 (0 18 0 0)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x001a   019   019   000    Old_age   Always       -       2907914
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       93183610454064
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       24415168
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       1767572

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Self-test routine in progress 40%        27         -
# 2  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         2         -
# 3  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         0         -
# 4  Short offline       Completed without error       00%         0         -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Partitionierung

Partitionierung des Massenspeicher-Subsystems bei OVH:

# cat /etc/fstab
/dev/md1       /        ext4    errors=remount-ro       0       1
/dev/md2        /home   ext4    defaults        0       2
/dev/sda3       none    swap    defaults        0       0
/dev/sdb3       none    swap    defaults        0       0

Ext4 auf einem Server -hmm, mutig.

Die nackte Debian-Installation belegt rund 620 MB der 10-GB-Partition; für die /home-Partition stehen 1,8 Terabyte zur Verfügung:

Bei Strato fällt die Konfiguration deutlich konservativer aus:

# cat /etc/fstab
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# file system     mount point    type     options                  dump pass
/dev/md1          /              ext3     defaults                 0    0
/dev/md0          /boot          ext2     nosuid,nodev             0    2
/dev/sda2         none           swap     sw                       0    0
/dev/sdb2         none           swap     sw                       0    0
proc              /proc          proc     defaults                 0    0

/boot auf Ext2, eine große Partition für den Rest mit Ext3 - das ist weitaus flexibler. Es bleibt zu hoffen, dass die OVH-Admins wissen, was sie tun.

# df -h
Dateisystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Eingehängt auf
/dev/md1               10G  623M  8,9G   7% /
tmpfs                  12G     0   12G   0% /lib/init/rw
udev                   10M  208K  9,8M   3% /dev
tmpfs                  12G     0   12G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/md2              1,8T  196M  1,8T   1% /home

Das ergibt folgendes Verzeichnislayout:

# ls /
bin  boot  dev  etc  home  lib  lib32  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  sbin  selinux  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var

Die monströse /home-Partition ist für unsere Zwecke vollkommen unbrauchbar, also steht zwingend ein Neuaufsetzen der Grundinstallation an.


Paketquellen

OVH hat die Paketquellen für Debian drastisch abgespeckt und teilweise auf eigene Mirror umgebogen:

  # cat /etc/apt/sources.list
 deb http://mirror.ovh.net/debian/ squeeze main
  deb-src http://mirror.ovh.net/debian/ squeeze main
  deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main
  deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main

Statt des ersten Eintrags könnte man auch direkt auf die Debian-Server zugreifen. Bei den offiziellen Sicherheits-Updates hat OVH den Zweig "non-free" weggelassen. Inoffizielle Quellen oder Backports bindet OVH sinnvollerweise nicht ein.

Kernel

Als laufender Kernel meldet sich der 64-bittige IPv6-Kernel 2.6.38.2-grsec-xxxx-grs-ipv6-64:

# uname --all
Linux ns225163.ovh.net 2.6.38.2-grsec-xxxx-grs-ipv6-64 #2 SMP Thu Aug 25 16:40:22 UTC 2011 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Besonders aktuell hält OVH seine Installations-Images anscheinend nicht; Paketupdates zum Image am 7. Oktober 2011:

# aptitude update
Hole:1 http://security.debian.org squeeze/updates Release.gpg [836 B]  
Ign http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates/main Translation-de    
Ign http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates/main Translation-en
Hole:2 http://security.debian.org squeeze/updates Release [38,4 kB]
Hole:3 http://security.debian.org squeeze/updates/main Sources [48,0 kB]
Hole:4 http://security.debian.org squeeze/updates/main amd64 Packages [154 kB]
Hole:5 http://mirror.ovh.net squeeze Release.gpg [1.672 B]                        
Hole:6 http://mirror.ovh.net/debian/ squeeze/main Translation-de [1.514 kB]
Ign http://mirror.ovh.net/debian/ squeeze/main Translation-en
Hole:7 http://mirror.ovh.net squeeze Release [104 kB]
Hole:8 http://mirror.ovh.net squeeze/main Sources [4.539 kB]
Hole:9 http://mirror.ovh.net squeeze/main amd64 Packages [6.539 kB]
12,9 MB wurden in 7 s heruntergeladen (1.761 kB/s)                                                                                                                            
                                 
Aktueller Status: 44 Aktualisierungen [+44].

Da wir ein Debian GNU/Linux einsetzen, stellt das Aktualisieren der installierten Pakete keinerlei Problem dar. Hoch lebe apt!

Gebootet wird, wie bei aktuellen Debian-Versionen üblich, über Grub.


Lokalisierung und Internationalisierung

Standardmäßig sind im OVH-Image vier Spracheinstellungen installiert:

  de_DE ISO-8859-1
  de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
  de_DE.UTF-8@euro UTF-8
  de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
.

Bei Strato ist dagegen nur die (m.E. ausreichende) Locale de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8 aktiviert.

Zeit

Der Zeit-Dienst ntp ist nicht eingerichtet:

  # cat /etc/ntp.conf
 cat: /etc/ntp.conf: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden

Mit dpkg-reconfigure tzdata (ehemals tzconfig kann man die Zeitzone ändern; bei Strato war sie standardmäßig auf "Europe/Berlin" gesetzt, während die Server bei OVH nach französischer Zeit laufen:

  # cat /etc/timezone
 Europe/Paris

Dienste

Laut Debian Runlevel Configuration (rcconf) laufen auf dem frisch eingerichteten Server folgende Dienste:

  atd
  bind9
  bootlogs
  fixudev
  hddtemp
  irqbalance
  lvm2
  lwresd
  mdadm
  mdadm-raid
  module-init-tools
  procps
  rsync
  rsyslog
  smartmontools
  ssh
  udev

Das ist eine ganze Menge für einen Server, der angeblich "ausschließlich SSH" vorkonfiguriert haben soll. smartmontools und hddtemp sind sinnvolle Entscheidungen, bei bind9 und rsync ist mir nicht so ganz klar, warum diese Daemons unbedingt laufen müssen.

Gegenüber der (schlankeren) Standardkonfiguration von Strato fehlen bei OVH ausserdem u.a. cron und ntp. Wie bei Strato ist auch bei OVH rcconf nicht vorinstalliert.

Wie auch immer, im großen und ganzen findet man auch bei OVH ein relativ sauber abgespecktes Minimalsystem vor.

Netmarks

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